>> | Home | Books | Visit | Explore & More | Events | FAQs | Contacts

Hemyock Castle
Ancient Heart of the Blackdowns

The Abolition of Slavery

Bicentenary of Britain's 1807 Anti-Slavery Law

Throughout 2007, there were many commemorations of Britain's 1807 law which outlawed the transatlantic slave trade. However, Canada's vital role as a safe haven for escaped slaves is now less well known:

Portrait of General Simcoe

General Simcoe's and Canada's Role

In 1793 and after much difficult negotiation, General Simcoe, a former owner of Hemyock Castle, then Lt. Governor of Upper Canada (Ontario) successfully introduced the Act Against Slavery law to end slavery in that province:

No more slaves could be brought into the province; Adult slaves could continue, but their children would become "free" at the age of 25 years and their children would be "born free."

This pioneering legislation, benefitted not only Canadian slaves but also the escaped slaves from elsewhere: Canada became the destination of what was later called the "Underground Railroad," a network of brave sympathetic people – the "Conductors" – together with their transport, "safe houses" and refuges – the "Stations." This extensive network helped slaves who escaped from captivity in the southern United States of America to reach freedom in the northern "Free States" and Canada.

This early abolition of slavery in Canada is believed to have saved the lives of more than 40,000 ex-slaves. A noble legacy of General Simcoe.

The "Underground Railroad," for escaped slaves, was active mostly between about 1780 and 1862; particularly between about 1840 and 1860. Notable advocates of the abolition of slavery, included the Religious Society of Friends (ie. "Quakers"), Congregationalists, Wesleyans, and Reformed Presbyterians, as well as some sects of mainstream denominations such as branches of the Methodist church and American Baptists. Many free-born blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves, Native Americans, Church clergy and congregations all gave active help.

Although only a relatively small proportion of the total numbers of slaves in North America, the issue of slaves escaping from its southern states, was an important trigger for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865.

Note. The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead, soon to be released as a movie, is a fictional novel: The underground trains and railroad tunnels depicted in that novel, never existed.

Slavery in Canada – Background

Much has been written about slavery, past and present; it's hard for us to understand why it could ever have been considered acceptable.

Without in any way condoning the practice, or its continuation into modern times, we should understand the context:

There was resistance to abolishing this practice. As Lt. Governor, General Simcoe negotiated its gradual phasing-out.

At that time there were many practices which we now regard as abhorrent. Many ordinary people in Britain lived very hard lives, in terrible conditions.

For example, during times of tension, men were subject to enforced military service: Including the infamous "Press Gangs" and recruiting sergeants in England which effectively abducted men, forcing them to serve in the Royal Navy or military in harsh conditions and under brutal discipline.

Notably, many Royal Navy sailors who enforced the abolition of the slave trade – and many who died in the battles or of disease while on patrol – were themselves victims of forced conscription through "press gangs" into very harsh military conditions, so themselves were effectively slaves.

Slavery, Servitude & Bonded Labour – As Worldwide Issues

It is a pity that the recent UNESCO report into "Slave Routes" concentrates mostly on the shameful historic transatlantic slave routes from Africa to the Americas. By doing this, and in seeking to blame only the European colonial powers, the UNESCO report seems to ignore the context; the worldwide nature; and the continuing worldwide existence of slave trades. In many countries, it exists even at the local level, where people – especially children – are sold into bonded labour as a way of repaying loans to money-lenders.

Forms of slavery existed – and still exist – on all continents and most countries around the World.

The global slave trade, the transatlantic slave trade, and the involvement of different countries in this trade are complicated, politicised topics. Some data are unreliable and open to (mis)interpretation. Maps on the SlaveVoyages.org website try to illustrate the data. Notice particularly Map 1 which shows how slaves from Africa were transported to many different countries; and Map 9 showing that most slaves transported by the Transatlantic slave trade were not taken to North America, either directly or after being transshipped via the Caribbean. Census data suggest that the higher birth rate and survival amongst slaves in North America, led to the large increase in the population of slaves.

Looking further back, men (also women and children) were regularly captured and enslaved by gangs and war parties. At one time, Slavonic people (ie. Slavs) were highly prized in the Middle East, so were captured and traded across Europe and the Orient: Hence the word "Slave"!

Some "Serfs" of Feudal times were slaves.

Ottoman Empire, until Early 20th Century

Slavery in the Ottoman Empire was large-scale, widespread and continued until the early 20th century. It is said that male slaves were usually castrated, and that any children of female slaves – including sex-slaves – were killed at birth, explaining the lack of descendents. However, some male (eunuch) slaves achieved high status in government administration & the military.

Barbary Pirates 1530 to 1830

For 300 years, between about 1530 and 1830, Barbary Pirates from North Africa (mostly parts of the Ottoman Empire) were a menace to seafarers and coastal settlements, particularly around the English West Country, as well as the coasts of Ireland and northern Europe. Many tens of thousands of (non-Muslim) men, women and children were taken captive to be sold into slavery and / or held for ransom. By some estimates, well over a million European people were enslaved. Non-Muslim captives were valuable because their Muslim "owners" were forbidden from enslaving Muslim people.

1860's Emancipation in Russia & USA, "Juneteenth"

Russia: Partly because of concerns about the poor effectiveness of Russian forces during the Crimean War (1853–1856) the new young Tsar Alexander II issued the 1861 Edict of Emancipation. This abolished serfdom on private estates, although not yet in Georgia. Also, domestic serfs were treated less favourably than those working on the land. Serfs in Georgia gained their freedom in 1864, on better terms. State-owned serfs gained their freedom in 1866. However, this process and the promised grants of land were neither smooth nor bloodless.

USA: The American Civil War (1861–1865) was partly about slavery. President Abraham Lincoln (leader of the northern, Union, states) issued the Emancipation Proclamation. This took effect on 1st January 1863, but did not cover all states. Many freed slaves fought in the Civil War. Slavery in USA was abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865, and finally by the 1874 federal Padrone Act. Gaining legal freedom was just the start.

Juneteenth: 19th June is now a USA Federal Holiday. It celebrates the 19th June 1865 when Union army General Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston, Texas to proclaim victory over the southern, slave-owning Confederate states.

Modern Slavery

Thankfully, slavery and many other unacceptable practices have now been outlawed in most countries. Sadly, they have not yet completely stopped everywhere. Modern "people trafficking" and migration networks have uncomfortable similarities with former slave trading. Some are run by similar types of people; show similar disregard for their human victims; and even use similar routes.

Victims are recruited using false promises and threats, but even after paying the traffickers, are abused, robbed and put at extreme risk during their journeys. Even people who do reach their destinations often continue to be exploited by the traffickers; the traffickers often also continue to exploit the victims' families in their home countries and continue to extort more money.

It is a pity that NGOs and governments of destination countries, do so little to help governments of the source countries to combat the false promises and activities of people traffickers & people smugglers. Increased efforts in the source countries could greatly reduce the deaths and misery of trafficking victims & their families.

Question: There are uncomfortable parallels between the slave trade and modern-day people trafficking. Would some of the well-meaning NGOs & groups who oppose all efforts to control or stop modern people trafficking and irregular migration, also have obstructed the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade?

Thankfully, abolitionist groups won. The British government held its nerve. Its campaign against the transatlantic slave trade was successful. The 1833 Slavery Abolition Act granted freedom to all slaves throughout the British Empire. (A process which took until 1838.)

Home | Books | Visit | Explore & More | Events | FAQs | Contacts

Hemyock Castle, Hemyock, CULLOMPTON, Devon, EX15 3RJ, UK.
© 2001–2022. Prepared and published by Curlew Communications Ltd